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Iranian Group Phishes Think Tanks in Cyber Espionage Campaign


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A recently released report by cybersecurity firm Proofpoint has uncovered a cyber espionage group with links to the Iranian government targeting Middle Eastern nuclear weapons experts by impersonating think-tank employees. Known as TA453, Charming Kitten, or APT35, the group has a history of targeting government officials, politicians, think tanks, and critical infrastructure entities in the United States and Europe.

The report highlights a specific campaign conducted from March to May, which involved phishing emails and the deployment of malware to compromise victims’ systems. This article provides an overview of the findings from the Proofpoint report, shedding light on the tactics used by the Iranian cyber espionage group.


TA453’s Targeted Phishing Campaign:

Proofpoint’s report reveals that TA453’s recent campaign aimed to establish trust with foreign policy researchers in the West through benign initial emails. Subsequently, phishing emails were sent, containing links to a password-protected Dropbox URL, seemingly providing access to research materials. However, instead of legitimate content, the links executed malicious files and installed a backdoor on victims’ systems. The group relied on cloud hosting providers for additional malware payloads.

cyber espionage group with links to the Iranian government targeting Middle Eastern nuclear weapons experts by impersonating think-tank employees.

Specific and Limited Targeting:

The campaign appears to be highly targeted, with fewer than 10 individuals identified as recipients of the phishing emails. While Proofpoint’s visibility is limited to data collected from their customers, no successful infections were reported. The report suggests that TA453 focuses on individuals at the edge of discussions regarding Western foreign policy decision-making, potentially aiming to gather intelligence about nuclear sanctions and diplomatic policies.


Impersonation of Think-Tank Employees:

TA453 employed sophisticated tactics to impersonate experts from renowned think tanks. By spoofing email addresses and utilizing services like Gmail and Yahoo, the group mimicked real researchers to deceive victims into believing the messages were genuine. The report cites an example where the actor posed as Karl Roberts, a senior fellow at the Royal United Services Institute (RUSI), seeking feedback on an Iranian-themed research project. The impersonation involved multiple follow-up emails to establish credibility.


Mac-Compatible Malware and Adaptability:

Proofpoint’s researchers noted that TA453 used a backdoor that specifically targeted Macintosh computers, marking a departure from their previous Windows-focused tactics. When encountering a victim’s Apple Mac computer incompatible with their initial malware, the group swiftly developed an entirely new infection chain within a week to deploy Mac-compatible malware. This demonstrated TA453’s adaptability and dedication to targeting specific individuals.


Think Tanks as Prime Targets:

The targeting of think tanks and research institutions by nation-state actors seeking insight into Western policymaking is a growing trend. Similar campaigns have been observed in the past, including North Korean hacking groups targeting think tanks for foreign policy knowledge and Russian APT Fancy Bear targeting European think tanks ahead of EU parliamentary elections in 2018.



Proofpoint’s report sheds light on TA453’s cyber espionage campaign, exposing their tactics of impersonating think-tank employees to target Middle Eastern nuclear weapons experts. The highly targeted phishing campaign highlights the group’s efforts to gain intelligence on Western foreign policy decision-making. As think tanks and research communities continue to be attractive targets for nation-state actors, heightened vigilance and robust cybersecurity measures are essential to protect sensitive information and preserve the integrity of policy discussions.

Abu Bakr Alvi
Abu Bakr Alvi
Mr. Abu Bakr Alvi, Senior Journalist Based in Faisalabad

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