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Pakistan’s Looming Debt Crisis: A Call to Action


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Pakistan’s debt crisis has emerged as a pressing concern, drawing attention from both domestic and international observers. This research seeks to delve deeper into the root causes, dynamics, and implications of Pakistan’s escalating debt burden, with a focus on understanding the factors contributing to its unsustainability and exploring potential avenues for mitigating this crisis.


Over the past decade, Pakistan’s debt levels have surged significantly, raising alarms about the country’s economic stability and fiscal sustainability. While the International Monetary Fund (IMF) has previously characterized Pakistan’s debt situation as “borderline” manageable, recent assessments by local think tanks, such as Tabadlab, paint a graver picture, warning of an imminent default if corrective measures are not implemented promptly.

Research Objectives:

To analyze the trajectory of Pakistan’s debt accumulation over the past decade, examining trends in both external and domestic borrowing.

To assess the impact of debt accumulation on Pakistan’s economy, including its effects on GDP growth, fiscal deficits, and inflation.

To identify the underlying causes of Pakistan’s debt crisis, including factors contributing to unsustainable borrowing practices.

To explore the social and economic implications of the debt crisis, particularly its effects on poverty, inequality, and access to essential services.

To propose policy recommendations and strategies for addressing Pakistan’s debt crisis, with a focus on promoting fiscal sustainability, enhancing debt management practices, and fostering economic resilience.


This research employs a mixed-methods approach, combining quantitative analysis of debt data and macroeconomic indicators with qualitative insights from expert interviews, policy documents, and academic literature. Data sources include official government reports, international financial institutions, and research publications from reputable think tanks and academic journals.




Debt Trajectory: Analysis of historical data reveals a steep increase in Pakistan’s debt levels, driven primarily by a combination of external borrowing, domestic bond issuances, and reliance on short-term financing instruments.

Economic Impact: The rapid accumulation of debt has strained Pakistan’s fiscal resources, leading to widening budget deficits, currency depreciation, and macroeconomic instability.

Root Causes: Key factors contributing to Pakistan’s debt crisis include structural imbalances in the economy, weak revenue generation capacity, inefficient public expenditure management, and political economy considerations.

Social Implications: The debt crisis has exacerbated social vulnerabilities, with adverse impacts on poverty alleviation efforts, access to healthcare and education, and the overall well-being of marginalized communities.

Policy Recommendations: To address the debt crisis, policymakers must prioritize fiscal consolidation measures, enhance transparency and accountability in debt management, implement structural reforms to boost revenue mobilization, and promote sustainable development strategies focused on inclusive growth and poverty reduction.


Pakistan’s debt crisis represents a multifaceted challenge that requires a comprehensive and coordinated response from policymakers, stakeholders, and international partners. By understanding the root causes of the crisis and implementing targeted interventions, Pakistan can chart a path towards fiscal sustainability, economic resilience, and inclusive development.

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