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Is Japan really 95% dependent on Middle East oil?


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Japan’s long-standing dependence on oil from the Middle East has endured over the years, despite efforts to diversify its energy sources and stockpile reserves.

The roots of this reliance can be traced back to the oil crisis of 1973 when a sudden surge in crude oil prices prompted Japan to take measures to secure its energy needs. In this article, we delve into the reasons behind Japan’s continued dependence on Middle Eastern oil, the challenges it faces, and the prospects for reducing this reliance.


Historical Perspective


The pivotal moment in Japan’s history of energy dependence on the Middle East dates back to October 16, 1973. During this period, Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries implemented a significant increase in crude oil prices, amounting to a staggering 70%. To compound matters, they restricted oil exports to nations supporting Israel, leading to a fourfold increase in crude oil prices. Japan, in response to this crisis, embarked on a strategy to stockpile oil and diversify its sources of supply. By the 1980s, Japan had successfully reduced its dependence on the Middle East to less than 70% of its total oil imports.


Challenges and the Present Situation


Fast forward to fiscal year 2022, which ended in March, Japan’s reliance on Middle Eastern oil had surged to 95.2%, a stark contrast to the levels achieved in the 1980s. There are several compelling reasons for this persistent dependence.


Economic Rationality: Shuji Hosaka, director of the Japanese Institute of Middle Eastern Economies, asserts that the Middle East remains the only source of cost-effective and stable energy supply. The private sector, driven by economic rationality, tends to favor this source.


Limited Alternatives: Japan’s alternative oil suppliers, including Indonesia, have seen their export capabilities diminish due to their own economic growth and the resultant surge in oil consumption. Additionally, Russia’s invasion of Ukraine has complicated Japan’s ability to rely on Russian oil.


Nuclear Power Plant Shutdown: Japan’s efforts to reduce fossil fuel usage have been hindered by the shutdown of nuclear power plants after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in March 2011. The lack of nuclear power has prompted an increased reliance on conventional energy sources.


Resource Diplomacy: Shunichi Kito, president of the Petroleum Association of Japan and CEO of Idemitsu Kosan, highlights the Middle East’s strength in terms of stable supply and cost competitiveness. Securing alternative energy sources has proven to be a significant challenge.


Prospects and Mitigation Strategies


To address the ongoing issue of energy dependence on the Middle East, Japan’s Prime Minister Fumio Kishida’s administration is taking steps to deepen ties with Middle Eastern nations. These initiatives are designed to support their efforts to reduce carbon emissions and diversify their economies. The Middle East presents potential opportunities for renewable energy sources like solar power, and it can serve as a promising base for clean energies, including hydrogen and ammonia.


Kishida’s visit to Middle Eastern countries, such as Saudi Arabia, in July reaffirmed Japan’s commitment to providing technical support to facilitate carbon emissions reduction. These collaborative efforts aim to harness the Middle East’s untapped potential for clean and renewable energy.




Despite Japan’s historical efforts to reduce its dependence on Middle Eastern oil, a series of economic, geopolitical, and environmental challenges have perpetuated its reliance. However, Japan’s commitment to collaborating with Middle Eastern nations in the transition to renewable and clean energies suggests a proactive approach to mitigate this reliance. The Middle East’s significance as a stable energy supply source remains undeniable, but diversification and environmental considerations are becoming increasingly important in Japan’s energy landscape. The path ahead involves balancing the nation’s immediate energy needs with its long-term energy security and sustainability goals.

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