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Rethinking Counterterrorism in Afghanistan and Pakistan


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The United States Institute of Peace (USIP) recently issued a comprehensive report emphasizing the urgent need for the United States to recalibrate its counterterrorism strategy in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Amid increasing strategic competition with China and persistent tensions between India and Pakistan, the report underscores counterterrorism as an integral part of the US strategic agenda, rather than a distraction.

Strategic Importance of Counterterrorism

The report, compiled by the Senior Study Group on Counterterrorism in Afghanistan and Pakistan, stresses that terrorist groups in these regions continue to pose significant threats to the US and its interests. These groups, such as ISIS-K (Daesh) and Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP), have not only maintained but also expanded their capabilities, potentially targeting the US directly.

Regional Implications and Strategic Distractions

A successful terrorist attack originating from Afghanistan or Pakistan would not only result in loss of lives but also divert critical resources and attention away from strategic competition with global powers like China. Such an event would undermine America’s credibility and weaken its alliances. Furthermore, terrorist attacks could trigger severe regional crises, particularly between nuclear-armed India and Pakistan, escalating to dangerous levels.

Impact of US Withdrawal from Afghanistan

The US withdrawal from Afghanistan has inadvertently empowered terrorist groups, offering them opportunities to regroup and strengthen their networks. The report highlights that ISIS-K’s influence now extends beyond the immediate region, and the TTP has re-emerged as a formidable threat to regional security.

Strategic Recommendations

The USIP report outlines several key recommendations to bolster US counterterrorism efforts:

Pressure the Islamic Emirate: The report suggests pressuring the Islamic Emirate to mitigate terrorist threats while maintaining communication channels for counterterrorism exchanges, rather than isolating the Taliban (IEA) completely.

Enhance Military and Intelligence Resources: Increasing the allocation of military and intelligence resources dedicated to counterterrorism in Afghanistan and Pakistan is crucial. This includes improving intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities and expanding the US Department of State’s Rewards for Justice program.

Transparency in Counterterrorism Operations: The report calls for greater transparency in legal authorities for counterterrorism actions, ensuring these actions are justified and minimizing civilian harm. This includes targeting terrorist groups planning attacks against the US and employing cyber operations to disrupt their communications.

Enhanced Security Assistance to Pakistan: Providing specific counterterrorism security assistance and intelligence to Pakistan is essential. This aims to reduce the TTP’s threat, secure long-term airspace access for operations in Afghanistan, and leverage reliable access in Pakistan in the event of a terrorist attack contingency.

Preparedness for Terrorist Attacks: The report highlights the need to improve preparedness for potential terrorist attacks in the US and abroad, particularly in South Asia. This includes enhancing intelligence collection and analysis, providing travel warnings, and securing emergency military operation bases in Central Asia and Pakistan.

counterterrorism strategy

The USIP report underscores the critical need for the United States to adapt its counterterrorism strategy in light of evolving threats and global strategic dynamics. By enhancing military and intelligence capabilities, maintaining strategic pressure on the Islamic Emirate, and ensuring transparency and preparedness, the US can effectively counter terrorist threats while safeguarding its broader strategic interests.

For continued updates and detailed analysis on US counterterrorism strategies, stay tuned to our latest reports and expert insights.

Abu Bakr Alvi
Abu Bakr Alvi
Mr. Abu Bakr Alvi, Senior Journalist Based in Faisalabad

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